No. 20 December 1, 1954 FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT REPORT ONTARIO PROVINCE OF ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS Division of Fish and Wildlife Hon. Clare E. Mapledoram F.A. MacDougall Minister Deputy Minister TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Waterfowl Band Recovery Program, Sioux Lookout District, Third Progress Report, February 14, 1953 - March 23, 1954 - A. T. Cringan Mid-Winter Waterfowl Inventory, 1954 - H. 0. Lumsden Experiment in Scaring Starlings by Sound at Buffalo, New York - A. H. Berst Duck Banding at Toronto Island, 1954 - W. J. Douglas Stephen 12 Waterfowl Observations in the Perrault Falls Area Sioux Lookout District, 1953-1954 - A. T. Cringan 14 A Biological Survey of Engineer's Lake, Kenora District - P. F. Chidley 20 Creel Census Report — 1953 Sault Ste. Marie District - Kenneth H. Loftus 26 Additional Age and Growth of Ontario Fish — Lake Whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) ^""0". E. Devitt 29 Till Algjagare — "For the Moosehunter" 34 (THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) WATERFOWL BAND RECOVERY PROGRAM, SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT THIRD PROGRESS REPORT FEBRUARY 14. 1953 - MARCH 23. 1954 by A. T. Cringan Results We have added seventy-six completed band returns to our files during the past thirteen months, increasing our total to 171* Returns by species are shown in Table I. TABLE I - District Band Returns by Species Returns received during period up to Species Oct. 25/52 Oct. 26/52 - Feb. 13/53 Feb. 14/53 - Mar. 23/54 Total Canada Goose 15 16 37 68 Mallard 13 19 9 41 Black Duck 6 8 9 23 Blue Goose 15 7 13 Lesser Snow Goose 4 9 13 Pintail 2 1 2 5 Lesser Scaup 3 3 Richardson's Goose 2 2 Ring-necked Duck 1 1 Redhead 1 1 Green-winged Teal 1 1 TOTAL 37 58 76 171 Just one of the seventy-six bands for which new returns have been received was taken a year or more prior to our receipt of the bands. This may indicate that we have succeeded in picking up most of such bands available. Source of Returns. Means of Death, and Place of Banding Places of returns, by band areas and species, are shown in Table 2. Severn and Winisk continue to be the chief sources of returns, together accounting for more than half of all returns received Total numbers of returns for all other band areas are very modest. Means of death for these 171 birds are summarized in Table 3* We received only one band from a duck which had been caught in a muskrat trap during the past year, a sharp drop in this respect. States or provinces in which the birds were banded are summarized in Table 4. Band return reports for mallard and Canada goose have been examined for possible relations between place of banding and place of recovery, and results are shown in Table 5. The information so obtained does not indicate anything definite for the mallard. TABLE II - Places of Returns, by Species Location Severn Winisk Bearskin Sachigo Big Trout Kasabonika Deer Lake Sandy Lake Round Lake Big Beaverhouse Lansdowne Little Gd. Rap. Cat Lake Pickle Lake Osnaburgh Fort Hope Ogoki Islington Red Lake Grassy Narrows Lac Seul Sioux Lookout- Arm. Auden-Nakina TOTAL CG _M BD BG LSG P 21 2 3 8 10 2 26 6 5 2 1 3 4 1 1 LS 1 3 6 5 68 41 23 13 RG 2 RND GWT 13 Total 4* 40 10 3 4 5 7 4 5 1 15 1 1 3 7 2 3 11 1 171 TABLE III - Means of Death of Banded Waterfowl CO J? BD BG LSG P LS RG RND R GWT Total Shot, Apr. -May 48 20 10 1 3 2 1 1 36 Shot, June- Aug. 5 3 4 1 1 1 15 Shot, Sept. -Nov. 11 2 5 12 12 1 1 44 Trapped 10 2 12 Not known or oth. 4 6 2 1 1 14 TOTAL 68 41 23 13 13 5 3 2 1 1 1 171 TABLE V - Site of Banding and Recovery of Waterfowl (a) - - Mallar d Site of Banding Prairie Prov. 1 Western U.S.A. N. Cent. U.S.A. Penn. N.Y. 1 Southern U.S.A. I rotal Severn, Winisk 2 Pat. West 2 19 2 23 Pat. Central (remainder) 6 2 2 10 S. L. -Armstrong 1 3 1 1 6 TOTAL 3 1 28 4 5 41 Severn Winisk Pat. West Pat. Central (remainder) TOTAL Missouri 5 2 3 4 14 (b) - Canada Goose Site of Banding Illinois Wisconsin 11 4 15 9 1 7 34 1 14 Ontario 1 TABLE IV - Places of Banding, by Species CG M BD N. W. Territories Saskatchewan Manitoba Ontario Colorado North Dakota South Dakota Minnesota Wisconsin Missouri Michigan Illinois Indiana Ohio Pennsylvania New York California Oklahoma Alabama Tennessee Kentucky Louisiana TOTAL 14 14 34 BG 11 LSG 13 LS RG RND 1 1 4 1 1 1 3 5 14 7 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 1 1 2 2 1 63 41 23 13 13 GWT Total 24 1 2 5 6 1 1 2 4 16 17 12 55 4 4 6 3 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 171 There may be some connection between the banding site (usually the wintering grounds) and recovery site of the Canada goose, as indicated by these data. Half or more of the recoveries from Missouri - and Ontario - banded honkers have come from inland areas (most of these would be from birds stopping during migration), while fewer than a quarter of the returns relating to Illinois - and Wisconsin - banded birds originate from interior points. Numbers of goose returns for Severn and Winisk are 21 and 26 respectively. The Severn total may include a higher proportion of geese which winter in Missouri than the Winisk total. Data for blue and lesser snow geese have also been examined. The ratio of banded blues: snows is reversed from 8:10 at Severn to 5:2 at Winisk. All but two of these 25 birds were banded by F. G. Cooch on Southampton Island, in 1952 and 1953° It is possible that a different ratio between the two species exists in the two places. It is also possible that the Severn flight consists to a greater extent of Southampton Id. birds than does the Winisk flight. I am looking forward to the publication of Mr. Cooch* s research on these species. MID-WINTER WATERFOWL INVENTORY, 1954 by H. G. Lunsden The mid-winter waterfowl inventory was carried out in the Rideau District by Mr. Peck and Mr. Lumsden on the morning of January 7th, and that in the Tweed District on the afternoon of the same day by Mr. Lumsden. The counts were done from a Piper Cruiser at an altitude of about 150 feet following the same routes as in the three previous years. Temperature in the morning was about 10°F rising to about 20°F in the early afternoon; visibility was very good with light cloud in the morning at 2000 feet, dissipating in the afternoon. Winds were westerly at about 15 m.p.h. There was less ice in the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario this year than even 1953* which was an exceptionally open winter. On the south shores of Prince Edward County, Amherst and Wolfe Islands, even the small bays were unfrozen although the semi land-locked waters such as Bayfield Bay on Wolfe Island were closed. The Bay of Quinte was frozen as far as the Glenora ferry, however, there were large open patches in Huykes Bay, Pleasant Bay and Weller Bay. The following table gives the figures for 1954 compared with those of 1951 to 1953* They concern the St. Lawrence from the eastern end of Howe Island to the Quebec border. 1951 1?J2 l?J2 1254 Golden-eye 7,447 9,905 3,241 5,394 Mergansers 409 354 395 454 Black Duck 282 199 341 617 Mallard 6 1 10 Scaup 6 475 ISO Canvas-back 10 100 8,150 10,459 4,562 6,645 The 1951 figures omit that part of the river lying between Croil Island and the Quebec border, a distance of about 26 miles. The following table gives the figures for Lake Ontario from Howe Island to Presquile Bay for 1954 and the three previous years. 125i 1952 i?J3_ 1954 Golden-eye 383 828 1,014 1,889 Old Squaw 536 912 283 229 Mergansers 30 21 68 36 Scaup 22 500 114 Redhead 2 Black Duck 21 55 544 Mallard 23 Buffle-head 3 970 1,783 1,920 2,838 Ice conditions are possibly the most important factor governing the numbers and distribution of ducks in winter in Ontario. Surface feeding ducks such as the Black Duck require shallow open water for foraging in winter. Hard weather seals up such places and they have to leave for the south. Of the four years under consideration, 1952 was the one with the most ice, and 1954 the one with the least. It will be seen that Black Ducks were least abundant in 1952 and present in largest numbers in 1954* In a sense Black Duck numbers in the St. Lawrence-Lake Ontario area could be used as an index to ice conditions. The two most common diving ducks wintering in this area are the Golden-eye and Old Squaw. Golden-eyes are powerful under water swimmers, but do not normally forage as deep as the Old Squaws. They do not feed on the same organisms, but take more fish. They are in fact closely related to the Mergansers. Ice conditions affect these two species in a different way to Black Duck. In the St. Lawrence under heavy icing conditions swift water areas remain open, but the quieter reaches of the right feeding depth for Golden-eye close up. This species is therefore forced to concentrate on the open areas and few are missed on an aerial survey. The high numbers seen in 1952 probably do not indicate an increase for that year, and in the same way the lower counts for 1953 and 1954 may not indicate a de- crease in the total number of this species. From the breeding ground surveys in eastern North America there are indications that the Golden-eye may actually have increased in the past 2 years. In the dead waters of Lake Ontario, the shallowest areas freeze first. In a light ice year Golden-eye may be found scattered along all coasts. In years with extensive ice they tend to concentrate in holes lying over shoal water and on certain parts of the shoreline. Golden-eye have increased steadily in Lake Ontario since 1951, the causes of this are at present obscure. 8 Old Squaw are not found wintering in this part of Ontario in waters over- lying Pre-Cambrian rocks. They are thus absent from the eastern end of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence. They are found in greatest numbers off the south shore of Prince Edward County in waters overlying limestone rocks. Their numbers seem to be correlated with ice conditions, only unlike the Black Duck they are most abundant in heavy ice years and least abundant in mild winters. EXPERIMENT IN SCARING STARLINGS BY SOUND AT BUFFALO, N. Y. by A. H. Berst Experiment carried out by Street Division of the City of Buffalo, under the authority of Mr. Frank Stahl, Director of Streets. Mr. Vic Barthouski of the above Division was in charge of the operation. Introduction ; For over 20 years the tall shade trees in a residential area in the City of Buffalo in the vicinity of the intersection of Starin and Depew Streets have been preferred roosing sites by starlings. Large numbers of purple martins, grackles and robins have also used the same area nightly during the summer months for many years. The primary object of the experiment was to drive the starlings out of this locality. Experiment : Two sound trucks were employed. Each truck contained a sound amplifying system with two loud speakers, the direction of each of which was controllable. A #wax record disk contained a series of shotgun bursts and starling distress calls was played through the ## amplifying systems on the trucks to provide the required sound effects. #The technique used in making the original recording on the wax record was very roughly as follows: The distress call of a single starling was made on a tape recorder. (A wounded starling will often give the characteristic distress call. Also, if a starling is held by the tip of a wing or by a foot, it will usually give the call) This call was re-recorded on another tape and roughly superimposed a number of times, so that when the tape was played back it sounded like a large number of starlings in distress. Two shotgun bursts were recorded on the tape, just ahead of the distress calls. By transcription, a wax record disk was then filled with a series of the shot- gun blasts and distress calls. ##The amplifier should be powered with at least 35 to 50 watts to provide sufficient volume. This is very important . Observations of the Buffalo Experiment : The experiment started in the evening of August 2nd and continued thereafter for 4 successive evenings. My observations were made on August 2nd and August 5th. 10 August 2nd Observations: At 8:00 p.m., I stood on the corner of Starin and Depew Streets and observed thousands of starlings, purple martins, grackles and a few hundred robins descending from the skies from all directions, diving into the tall shade trees which line the streets. By 8:15 p.m., the noise of the birds was very loud. At 8:15 p.m., the two sound trucks started into operation. Each truck had a pre-detemiined route, laid out like a figure 8, with the centre part of the 8 at the corner of Starin and Depew Streets, which was the approximate centre of the roosting area. The trucks proceeded very slowly, with loudspeakers blasting, along their routes, pausing under trees which appeared to contain the largest concentrations of birds. Operators on the trucks were continually adjusting the direction of the loudspeakers so that the full effect of the sound would reach the desired locations. Effects of the sound on the birds were immediately obvious. From my observation point, I could see thousands of starlings, purple martins and grackles hurriedly leaving the trees as the sound trucks approached. As the experiment continued, the sky was full of flocks of birds, flying in every direction, and apparently very confused. As soon as the sound truck had passed an area, large numbers of birds would re-alight on the trees, only to be scared away again within a few minutes when the sound truck re- appeared. However, when the trucks quit for the night, about 10:15 p.m., there were still thousands of birds in the trees. August 5th Observations : I arrived at the corner of Starin and Depew Streets at 8 p.m. Very few birds of any species were in the trees, which on Monday, August 2nd, had contained many thousands of roosting birds. A few small flocks of starlings, martins and grackles alighted in the trees between 8 and 8:15 p.m. The sound trucks started on their routes at 8:15 p.m. and birds could be seen leaving the trees. However, they could be estimated in tens and hundreds, whereas on August 2nd they were estimated by the thousands. The sound trucks now searched for individual trees which contained birds, and as the evening progressed it became increasingly difficult to find trees with roosting birds, since they were becoming scarce. I talked with several residents of the area, who appeared extremely well pleased with the results of the experiment and drew my attention to the lack of starling droppings on the streets and the quietness which prevailed. Officials responsible for the experiment were also very pleased and appeared surprised to see such a reduction in numbers of purple martins and grackles as well as starlings. They intended to carry out the "sounding" for one more night (August 6). 11 It Is believed that a large number of young birds, born this summer in the country and just now learning to fly, will follow their parents to the roosting area in the near future. It will probably be necessary to scare these birds out of the roost at weekly intervals. CONCLUSIONS : It will be necessary to wait for a week or more to see if the flocks of birds return to the roosting area before the value of the experiment can be estimated. However, the results up to August 6th were very promising. 12 DUCK BANDING AT TORONTO ISLANDS - 1954. by W. J. Douglas Stephen During the period of the duck trapping operation on Toronto Islands a total number of two hundred and three ducks were caught. Of this number one hundred and fifty-eight were banded. Twenty-five of these birds were caught again. Of the total eleven ducks were lost to predators. Nine ducklings were caught in the bait traps and released as too small to band, and four were caught with hand nets and released as too small to band. Of those lost to predators (presumably raccoons) four had been banded previously in the summer's operation. As the bands belonged in the same series, they were re-used because of the shortage of bands. Ducks banded 158 Direct recoveries 25 Lost to predators 11 Released from bait traps (too small) 9 Released from hand traps (too small) 4 207 Of the total number of birds caught fifty-nine were Black Ducks and one hundred and forty-four were Mallards. Of the Black Ducks caught four were juveniles? of these four only three were banded. Among the Black Ducks banded and those lost to predators (a total of fifty) there were thirty-three adult males, fourteen adult females and three juveniles. Of the Mallards banded and those lost to predators, twenty-two were adult males, forty-one were adult females and forty-nine were juveniles. I estimate that there were thirty-six broods of ducks at the Toronto Islands. The total duck population is estimated at from two hundred to two hundred and twenty-five adults plus one hundred and seventy-five to two hundred juveniles. This is a sum total of from three hundred and seventy-five to four hundred and twenty- five ducks. With the blacks the size of broods ranges from one to eight ducklings with an average of four to five. In the mallards, the brood size ranges from one to ten ducklings with the average six to seven. The broods are located on the inner lagoons and spread evenly along them, when there are sufficient nesting spots, about every two hundred to three hundred yards. However, in the residential areas east of Chippewa Avenue, on the Regatta course and the bay front or northern shores of the Islands a lesser density is the case, 13 The use of a three foot hoop net with twenty foot wings from the sides and a sixty foot centre lead proved highly effective to trap juveniles and flightless adults. The trap was set up in a narrow cut leading into a lagoon. The cut was shallow about three to three and a half feet deep. The hoops and wings were partly supported by wooden (1 M x 1" x 6») stakes and tied at the rear to a bridge. The wings were then spread across the water and the ducks driven into the hoop net. The largest percentage of ducks were caught in this manner. The bait for the bait-type traps was a whole corn-whole barley mixture (about 50-50). Five bags of corn and four bags of barley were required to operate six traps for four weeks. The ducks seem to prefer the whole corn to the barley, but the barley provides a sight attraction and provides fodder for starlings, grackles and red-wing blackbirds which might otherwise eat corn. Recommendations : The most effective trapping period is estimated to be from approximately June 10 to July 15. A shorter trapping period near the latter part of this time might be just as effective if more personnel and equipment were used. However, in an area as limited as this it is doubtful if more than eight to ten bait-type traps could be operated effectively. They would have to be moved from time to time anyway so that they would be as efficient as sixteen traps or more. The nestlings are able to keep on a band as soon as the covert feathers start to appear on the wing. Sometimes they can be banded before that in a slow- feathering bird, so the appearance of covert feathers leaves a margin of error. The use of plastic tags, or expandable bands would be of great use for easier marking, easy identification and the possibility of a shorter banding period. A larger hoop net would also enable a larger number of areas to be worked. Not only the larger capacity but the greater length of the wings would enable wider areas to be driven for ducks. 14 WATERFOWL OBSERVATIONS IN THE PERRAULT FALLS AREA, SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT, 1953 - 1954. by A. T. Cringan Much field work was done by the author and others in the Ferrault Falls area during 1953. All waterfowl observations made between Vermilion Bay and Wenasaga Lake from Ord Lake west to Aerobus Lake, during such field work, are included in this report. The following are the individual field trips which were made into the area during 1953 » and the persons participating: Spring ; May 6th - 8th : self, D. Van Vliet May 9th - 12th : D. Van Vliet May 13th - 16th : self, J. H. Cringan, D. Van Vliet May 20th : self, D. Van Vliet May 21st - 26th : D. Van Vliet Summer ; June 15th - 19th July 20th - 24th Aug. 11th - 15th Fall ; Oct. 1st - 2nd Oct. 8th - 10th Oct. 15th - 16th Oct. 19th - 20th Nov. 26th - 28th self, D. Van Vliet self, D. Van Vliet self, D. Van Vliet self self self self self, J. A. Macfie Complete records of observations were kept for only 7 days in May. Snow Goose and Blue Goose Spring ; The 1953 flight of snow and blue geese over Cedar Lake was the largest that Dr. R. Blais had seen there between 1947 and 1953. He saw a total of about 1000 blue and snow geese between May 4th and 9th, and an additional 75 blue geese on May 15th. Conservation Officer N. Dahl saw 200 blue and snow geese at Perrault Falls on May 5th. The author and D. Van Vliet saw about 80 geese on May 6th., and about 1000 on May 7th., at Perrault Falls. The flocks consisted of blue and snows in about equal proportions, the flocks flying about N. 30 E. Another flock of 25 blue geese was seen on May 9th. Mallard Spring ; Mallards were already present in the area when field work commenced on May 6th. Between 4 and 13 mallards were seen daily on 6/7 days in May. Summer ; During June, from 2-13 mallards were seen daily on 4/4 days in the field. It was only seen twice during July, when broods accompanied by adult females were seen on July 21st and 22nd. Last male in breeding plumage was seen on June 18th. Pairs Males Females Undetermined Total 5 15 2 3 30 - 7 eggs 11 8 10 40 2 - 7 yg. 15 Fall ; 4/28 ducks in hunters' bags inspected during October were mallards. Breeding Records May 15th., 1953 - nest and 7 eggs, Cedar Lake. July 21st., 1953 - female and brood of 6 Class 111 young, Cedar Lake. July 22nd., 1953 - female and brood of 1 Class 111 young, Ord Creek. Average brood size: 3.5 young. Observed Mallard Sex Ratio, by Months May June July Baldpate Spring : Two pairs were seen on Wabaskang Lake between May 8th and 13th. One male and 2 females were seen at the Upper Falls, Wabigoon River, on May 20th. Summer : Two pairs were seen on Wabaskang Lake on June 17th., and one pair there on June 18th. Pintail Fall : 2/28 ducks in hunters' bags checked during October were pintails. Ring-necked Duck Spring : A pair of ring-necked ducks was seen on Wabaskang Lake between May 8th and 12th., and two pairs were seen at the same place on May 13th. A pair and a drake were seen on the Wabigoon River near Upper Falls on May 20th. Summer : The ring-necked duck appeared to be fairly common during June, as 1-15 were noted daily on 4/4 days afield. On June 16th., 1 pair, 1 drake, and one individual of undetermined sex were seen along Ord Creek. Five pairs and 5 drakes were seen on Keynote Lake on June 17th., 1 pair, two males and two females on Wabaskang on the 18th, and 1 female on Wabaskang on the 19th. Fall : 3/28 ducks in hunters' bags checked during October were ring-necked ducks. Greater Scaup Duck Spring : A pair of greater scaups was seen in Lac Seul, at Goldpines, on May 14th. Lesser Scaup Duck Spring: A flock of fifty or so scaups, apparently of this species was seen on Wabaskang Lake twice between May 8th and 13th. 16 Common Golden-eye Spring ; From 1-18 golden-eyes were noted daily on 7/7 days afield in May. The Yast recognizable adult male in breeding plumage was seen on May 23rd. Summer : During June, 8-19 adult golden-eyes were noted daily on 4/4 days in the field. Broods were seen as early as June 16th. Also recorded on 2 days in July and 2 days in August. Fall : 6/28 ducks in hunters' bags checked during October were golden-eyes. Breeding Records Month Of Class of ducklings observed. and numb< in each sr of brood Total Number of Ducklings Total Number of Broods Average Brood Size I II III June, 1953 3.5.5. 7,7,10 37 6 6.2 July, 1953 2,3 4,8 17 4 4.2 Total Number of Ducklings 37 17 54 Total Number of Broods 6 4 10 Average Brood Size 6.2 4.2 5.4 Observed Golden-eye Sex Ratio, by Months Pairs Mali 3S Femali 33 Undetermined Total May 10 11 3 7 41 June 23 40 63 July 4 4 August 12 12 Surf Scoter Fall : 2/28 ducks in hunters 1 bags inspected during October were surf scoters. Hooded Merganser Spring : A group of 3 drake hooded mergansers was seen on Ord Lake on May 15th. Summer : Two hooded mergansers of undetermined sex were seen on Ord Creek on June 16th., and a female was seen on Wabaskang Lake on June 17th. Fall : 1/28 ducks inspected in hunters » bags during October was a hooded merganser. Common Merganser Spring: From 1 to 6 common mergansers were noted daily on 5/7 days in May. Summer : Between 2 and 12 birds of this species were noted daily on 4/4 17 days in June. It was also noted once in July and once in August. The last male in recognizable breeding plumage was seen on June 18th. Fall ; 10/28 ducks in hunters 1 bags checked during October were common mergansers. Breeding Records June 17th, 1953 - brood of 3 Class I young, Wabaskang Lake. July 24th., 1953 - brood of 14 Class II young, Cliff Lake. # Aug. 15th., 1953 - brood of 32 Class III young, Cedar Lake. # # - Probably multiple broods. Observed Common Merganser Sex Ratio by Months Pairs Males Females Undetermined Total May 4 12 2 22 June 2 18 22 July 1 1 August 1 1 Relative Abundance of Waterfowl Seen in the Perrault Falls Area During June, July and August, 1953. Species Number of Per Cent of ________ Adults Seen All Ducks Seen 1. Common Golden-eye 79 44 % 2. Mallard 42 23 % 3. Ring-necked Duck 26 14 % 4. Common Merganser 24 13 % 5. Bald pate 6 3 % 6. Hooded Merganser 3 2 % TOTAL 180 99 % Relative Abundance of Waterfowl Broods and Ducklings Seen in the Perrault Falls Area During June, July and August, 1953. Species Number Broods of Per Cent Broods Number of Ducklings Per Cent Ducklings Average Brood Size 3 20 % 59 49 % ? # 10 67 % 54 45 % 5.4 2 13 % 7 6 % 3.5 15 100 % 120 100 % ? 1. Common Merganser 2. Common Golden-eye 3 . Mallard TOTAL # - One or two multiple broods are included for common merganser. 18 1954 Spring and Early Summer Waterfowl Observations in the Perrault Falls Area . I made two short field trips into the Perrault Falls area in the spring of 1954, preparatory to having a field party in that area during parts of July and August. The first trip was from May 25th - 28th, during which all travel was by truck and foot, and the second trip, June 8th - 12th. I was accompanied by my wife during the second trip, and in addition to truck and foot travel, we travelled along Ord Creek by canoe and outboard motor on June 10th. The following is a summary of waterfowl observations made during these two trips. Mallard A total of 18 mallards, consisting of 4 pairs, 5 males, 1 female, and 4 birds of undetermined sex was seen during these two trips. The species was seen on five different days. The maximum daily total was recorded on June 10th, when 1 pair, 4 males and 4 birds of undetermined sex were seen along Ord Creek. Baldpate A pair of baldpates was seen at Florence Creek on May 26th., and again in the same place on June 10th. Pintail A pintail drake was seen on Ord Creek on June 10th. Ring-necked Duck A pair of ring-necked ducks was seen on Ord Creek on June 10th. Common Golden-eye Some 49 golden-eyes were observed altogether - 12 pairs, 1 male, 4 females, and 20 adults of undetermined sex. On May 26th., 6 pairs and 1 male were seen, and on June 10th. we saw 20 golden-eyes, including 3 females. The species was recorded on five different days. No recognizable adult males were seen after May 27th. Surf Scoter A flock of 25 surf scoters was seen on Farewell Bay, Lac Seul, on May 26th. They were undoubtedly then still in migration, and were the only surf scoters I saw this spring. Hooded Merganser One pair of hooded mergansers was seen in Trail Lake on May 25th. Common Mergansers Common mergansers were noted on seven different days, and a total of 21 was seen. They consisted of 2 pairs, 11 males, 2 females, and 2 birds of undetermined sex. A group of 5 adult males in breeding plumage was seen on June 10th. 19 Red-breasted Merganser This species was only seen on May 26th., when one pair was seen on Goose Lake, and a second pair at Perrault Falls. These were the last red-breasted mergansers I saw this spring. 20 A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ENGINEER'S LAKE, KENORA DISTRICT . M by P. F. Chidley Purpose of Survey t The purpose of this survey was to obtain biological data on the condition and composition of the fish population of Engineer's Lake with a view to suggesting future management procedures. In 1952, some work was done in an effort to ascertain the success of two plantings of hatchery reared Speckled Trout fingerlings. Procedure of Survey ; The survey was conducted from October 15 to October 24, 1947, and supervised by Mr. J. W. Rousom, formerly District Biologist of the Kenora Forest District. Fish samples were collected by means of gill nets. Below are listed the net sets made and the sizes of mesh used: Set # 1 - 100 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh Set # 2 - 300 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh Set # 3 - 100 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh Set § 4 - 180 yds. - 30 yds. of 1 3/4" mesh 30 yds. of 1 1/2" mesh 30 yds. of 3 n mesh 30 yds. of 3 1/2" mesh 30 yds. of 4 " mesh 30 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh Set # 5 - Ditto Set # 4 Set # 6 - 300 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh. Each fish captured was measured for total, fork, and standard lengths to the nearest eighth of an inch and weighed to the nearest half ounce. Sex was deter- mined for all fish taken and the stomach content of the carnivorous species analysed. A scale sample was taken for subsequent age determination. Collections of small fish were made by means of a thirty-foot minnow seine. Water transparency was recorded by employing a Secchi disc in the conventional manner. k A map accompanied this report. 21 In the fall of 1952, from September 25 to September 30, sets numbered 7, 8, 9» and 10 were made. The size of mesh used was 2 3/4" • The entire shoreline of the lake was observed from a slow-moving boat in an effort to perceive any sign of speckled trout redds. Physical Properties of Engineer's Lake ; Engineer's Lake is situated in the township of Forgie, eighteen miles west of the town of Keewatin, immediately north of the Trans-Canada Highway. The lake has one small inlet which however, is dry during the summer months. There is no definite outlet although there may be some seepage drainage from the bay in the north- eastern extremity of the lake. Prior to the construction of the Trans-Canada Highway, two separate bodies of water existed where there is one to-day. Construction crews blasted out the isthmus separating the two small lakes. The smaller portion of the lake contains brown water while that of the larger is quite clear. The entire lake basin is approxi- mately one mile in length by one quarter of a mile in width. The surrounding hills do not exceed fifty feet in height. The east shore of the smaller basin is a sand beach. The shore of the larger is chiefly made up of rock rubble ranging from coarse gravel to boulders. One reedy bay exists in the southwest corner of the larger section of the lake. Secchi disc visibility in the larger basin was nineteen feet, in the smaller ten feet. Both readings were taken during July of 1948 in bright sunlight. Biological Properties of Engineer's Lake ; The sample of fish taken during the survey appears to be satisfactory with respect to relative abundance of species. Table I lists the fish taken, the total number and total weight of each species, and the percentages of the overall totals which they form. The number and kind of fish caught per net set are given in Table II. In Table III age in years is related to average weight in ounces and average fork length in inches. (Age is given as the number of annuli present on the scale.) Stomach analysis is presented in Table IV. Hatchery plantings are listed in Table V. Engineer's Lake harbours a good population of Lake Trout and Northern Pike. Both species exhibit good growth rates and attain good weight. One Pike taken weighed fourteen pounds, twelve and one half ounces. Unfortunately all scales removed for age determination proved to be regenerative. The Common Sucker does not appear too abundant and is probably the most 22 important forage fish. No Yellow Perch were taken in the survey nets, however, some were recovered from the stomachs of both Pike and Trout. The one Yellow Pickerel captured, a male, exhibited good growth. It is not believed this species inhabited the lake prior to the first hatchery planting in 1940. Its numbers are not thought to be large at present. A total of 108 Black-nosed Minnows ( Notropis h. heterolepis ) and one Yellow Perch was collected during seine hauls in the shallow water. No Speckled Trout were captured during the brief survey period in the fall of 1952. There was no evidence of redds of this species at any point along the shore. Management Observations ; Engineers Lake is readily accessible by motor car, however, it is not visible from the highway during the summer season of heavy foliage. For this reason not too many people are aware of the existence of the Lake and consequently fishing pressure is not heavy. There are three small private cottages on the lake at present. What is now one lake was originally two. During the construction of the Trans-Canada Highway in 1933 , working crews blasted out the present channel which joins the two basins. It is rumoured that dynamite was also used for the purpose of procuring fish, a practice employed in most of the lakes which fringe the highway right-of-way. Speckled Trout have been planted twice in Engineer's Lake but the success of this endeavour has yet to be proven. The writer received a report that one had been caught in the summer of 1952 which prompted the unsuccessful investigation the subsequent fall. As is usual, the person who caught the reported specimen did not present it to a Department officer for positive identification. On the findings of this survey the following recommendations are made: 1. That Engineer's Lake be managed to maintain its fishery for Lake Trout and Northern Pike. 2. That the further plantings of hatchery-reared Yellow Pickerel be dis- continued. 3. That no Smallmouth Bass be planted in Engineer's Lake. 4. That except when surplus hatchery stock is available, the further plant- ing of Lake Trout fingerlings be discontinued since the adult stock appears quite sufficient for the future propagation of this species. 23 5. That Speckled Trout fingerlings be planted again in the larger portion of the lake in an effort to establish this species. TABLE # 1 - Summary of Catch Species Lake Trout Northern Pike Common Sucker Yellow Pickerel Total Number 15 15 11 1 Percent of Total 35.7 35.7 26.2 2.4 Total Weight Percent of Total Weight 1113.0 oz. 39.5 1386.5 oz. 49.2 237.0 oz. 8.4 80.5 oz. 2.9 TABLE III. Catch by Net Set Species Lake Trout Yellow Pickerel Northern Pike Common Sucker i i 2 6 Totals 15 1 15 11 TABLE § III - Growth Rate - Age in Yrs. vs. Fork Length (ins.) and Weight (ozs.) Table 3a - Northern Pike Age Length Weight Number I 17.0 20.5 1 III 21.5 42.5 1 IV 24.3 57.5 1 V 25.9 78.2 7 VI 28.7 114.7 2 VII 34.0 171.5 1 Table 3b - Lake Trout Age Length V 20.0 VI 20.2 VII 22.2 VIII 22.9 IX 24.3 Weight 54.5 54.8 73.4 76.8 90.5 Number 1 2 4 5 3 24 Table 3c - Common Sucker III IV V VI Length 6.4 14.8 15.4 16.4 19.5 Table 3d - Yellow Pickerel Age Length V 22.8 Weight 2.3 30.3 33.5 42.5 66.5 Weight 81.0 Number 5 3 1 1 1 Number TABLE # IV - Stomach Analysis Table 4a - Lake Trout Stomach Content Empty Perch Common Sucker Unidentifiable Fish Remains Aquatic Beetle Aquatic Insect Larvae Table 4b - Northern Pike Stomach Content Empty Common Sucker Perch Lake Trout Frog Unidentifiable Fish Remains Number 8 1 1 4 1 1 Number 5 2 1 2 1 5 25 TABLE V - • Hatchery Plantings Year Species 1940 Yellow Pickerel 1940 Lake Trout 19U Yellow Pickerel 1941 Lake Trout 1950 Speckled Trout 1951 Speckled Trout Number Planted 250, ,000 4, ,000 250, ,000 4, ,000 5, ,000 4, ,000 26 CREEL CENSUS REPORT - 1953 SAULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT * by Kenneth H. Loftus The creel census report for the Sault Ste. Marie District is based, as in previous years, on the census cards which were distributed and subsequently collected at the two main travel permit gates, one being on the Chapleau Highway, the other on the White River road. Being thus located, the census provides data on the quality of fishing over an area approximately one-fifth of the district. Although the area covered is rather small, there is little doubt that the proportion of the total district angling pressure is somewhat larger than one-fifth. A total of 2,990 anglers reported their catches during the 1953 angling season. Fifty-two (52) percent of this total number angled for great northern pike, and by far the largest number of these enthusiasts spent at least some time on the now famous Rocky Island Lake. Speckled trout anglers numbered one out of every four, or twenty-five (25) percent of the angling population and their efforts were rather more dispersed than were those of the pike anglers. Lake trout claimed the attention of 16.7 percent of the anglers passing through the gates and, while the distribution of this species necessitates more concentration of effort than is the case with speckled trout, still there was no concentration of effort such as occurred at Rocky Island Lake. Rainbow trout, pickerel and sraallmouth bass anglers altogether constituted eight (8) percent of the total number of anglers present, this total being made up of three, three and two percent of the anglers for these three species respec- tively. The total numbers of fish caught by these anglers and the numbers of hours spent in pursuit of their special pastime are recorded in the appended table. It is of interest to note that pike anglers' efforts were well rewarded at the rate of almost one fish per hour of fishing and that the average angler caught slightly over thirteen pike which weighed 52 pounds during his trip. Many of these pike, being of rather small size, were returned to the water. Less than one (1) percent of the pike anglers were completely unsuccessful and had to report no fish. The average speckled trout angler required 1.8 hours for each of his fish. His efforts, slightly more persevering than those of the pike angler, resulted in an average catch of 7.1 trout which, in aggregate, weighed about 3«5 pounds. Six (6) percent of the speckled trout anglers reported no luck. Lake trout anglers, traditionally more patient, waited three and a half 27 hours for each trout. In spite of the fact that their sport and patience yielded an average of only two and a half trout each, still their creel, at almost five pounds, outweighed that of the speckled trout angler. Pickerel anglers, though few in number, were comparatively well reimbursed for their efforts. These tasty yellow pike-perch were landed at the rate of two every three hours and the average catch per angler numbered 5.7 and weighed a little better than fourteen (14) pounds in the creel. The fortunes of those who angled for smallmouth bass, and those whose preference was for rainbow trout, were remarkably similar. In each case two and a half hours were required to bring a fish to the creel and the anglers averaged just under two fish apiece. The average creel of rainbows, which ran larger than the bass, weighed 3.6 pounds, as compared to less than two (2) pounds of bass. In comparing the 1953 creel census data with that of 1952 the outstanding point of contrast is the increased number of pike anglers which appears to have been recruited from among the ranks of the lake trout anglers. The numbers of anglers for other species, and their success is, in the main, much similar in the two years. The value of the creel census, which has now been in operation for three complete seasons, is becoming more evident. We hope to increase the coverage of the district, as time goes on, through the cooperative efforts of Conservation Officers, Chief Rangers and tourist operators. TABLE I - Summary of Sault Ste. Marie District Creel Census for 195 3. Species Rainbow Trout Smallmouth Bass Pickerel Northern Pike Lake Trout Speckled Trout Total No. of Anglers 53 29 80 1,605 470 753 Total No. of Rod Hours 362 123 710 24,204 4,251 9,985 Total Fish Caught 93 50 476 21,017 1,136 5,377 No. of Fish Per Hour 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.9 0.3 0.5 No. of Fish Per Angler 1.8 1.7 5.7 13.1 2.4 7.1 Hours per Fish 2.6 2.5 1.5 1.1 3.7 1.8 Average Length 16" 13" 19" 25" 18" 10" Average Weight Per Fish 2 lbs. 1 lb. 2 lbs. 4 lbs. 2 lbs. 8 ozs. Average Weight Per Angler 3.6 lbs. 1.7 lbs. 8 ozs. 14.2 lbs. 52.4 lbs. 4.8 lbs. 3.5 lbs. % of Unsuccessful Anglers 5.7% 28% 24% 0.6% 4.2% 6% 2d x Ed. Note: Commenting on this report as a guide to the value of creel census activity Dr. W. J. K. Harkness made the following remarks: "I wish to say how much I appreciate the work involved in organizing this information and to express my opinion of the high value inherent in it. I should like to see this established as a recognized practice throughout the Province, as I believe it accomplishes at least three purposes, all of which are of significant importance:- - It makes the angler aware of the interest of the Department on checking his activity and in his responsibility for providing information necessary for management ; - It gives a measure of production or yield of the game fish from our waters; and the census from year to year provides an indirect indication of the stocks, if not in actual numbers, certainly in trends, and thus is the entering wedge for more de- tailed inventory of the game fish stocks." 29 ADDITIONAL AGE AND GROWTH RATES OF ONTARIO FISH — LAKE WHITEFISH ( Coregonus clupeaformls ) by 0. E. Devltt The Lake Whltefish is the most important of all Ontario freshwater food fishes producing annually large commercial incomes and to some extent providing winter sport fishing from angling through the ice. Veil distributed throughout the province this species exhibits a variability of growth rates controlled to a large extent by the temperatures of the body of water concerned. Scale reading was employed in assessing the ages of the following fish. Georgian Bay, Parry Sound District Collector — F Date — August • A. Walden , 1951 Age Group No. of Fish 29 Average Fork Length (ins) 16.3 Length Range (15.5-17.0) Average Weight (ozs.) Weight Range V 32.0 (13) (24.0-35.0) VI 200 16.7 (15.0-18.5) 34.7 (34) (27.5-40.0) VII 49 17.3 (16.0-20.0) - - VIII 22 18.2 (17.5-19.5) 59.0 (1) «■ IX 5 19.9 (19.0-20.5) - - X 1 20.0 - - - Lake Simcoe. Lake Simcoe District Collector — H. : Date — Oct. -Nov R. McCrlmmon ., 1952. Age Group No. of Fish 1 Average Total Length (ins.) 12.8 Length Range Average Weight (ozs.) Weight Range III m - IV 8 13.8 (13.4-14.4) 9.0 (1) - V 8 14.9 (14.2-16.0) 11.7 (6) (8.0-13.5) VI 12 17.1 (14.6-18.5) 19.6 (11) (12.0-28.0) VII 7 18.8 (18.5-19.2) 26.0 (24.0-28.0) VIII 7 19.4 (18.2-20.0) 31.7 (24.0-36.0) IX 5 19.7 (18.5-20.5) 28.8 (16.0-40.0) XI 8 20.3 (19.6-21.1) 33.0 (4) (32.0-36.0) XII 2 22.1 (21.7-22.6) • - 30 Mazinaw Lake. Tweed District Collector ~ H. Date ~ April, ', G. Lumsden L953. Age Group No. of Fish 8 Average Fork Length (ins.) 19.5 Length Range (18.5-20.5) Average Weight (ozs.) Weight Range XIII - - XIV 5 21.1 (20.5-21.5) - - XVI 1 23.5 - m - Loughborough Lake, Tweed District Collector — K Date — March, . K. Irizawa 1954. Age Group No. of Fish 1 Average Fork Length (ins) 14.7 Length Range Average Weight (ozs.) Weight Range V 24.0 - VI 1 15.0 wm - M VII 5 16.0 - 27.0 (4) (24.0-28.0) VIII 25 16.7 (16.0-17.5) 32.4 (19) (28.0-40.0) IX 10 17.9 (17.2-18.9) 35.3 (6) (32.0-40.0) X 1 20.0 - 48.0 - XI 1 21.0 «■ 56.0 - Larder Lake, Swastika District Collector — C. A. Elsey Date ~ June, 1951. IV 2 11.9 (11.0-12.9) 10.0 (8.0-12.0) V 3 12.9 (11.1-14.7) 15.0 (10.0-20.0) VI 5 15.7 (15.0-16.5) 24.6 (21.0-28.0) VII 2 17.1 (17.0-17.3) 34.0 (30.0-38.0) 31 Whitefish Lake. Port Arthur District Collector — G. C. Date — June, 1953 Armstrong s Age Group No. of Fish 3 Average Total Length (ins.) 15.2 Length Range (14.3-15.9) Average Weight (ozs.) Weight Range III 22.3 (17.5-26.5) IV 1 17.7 - 37.0 - VI 3 18.8 (18.7-19.0) 43.7 (42.0-47.0) VII 20 19.6 (18.3-20.9) 47.5 (37.0-59.5) VIII 14 20.8 (20.2-21.6) 58.0 (53.0-69.5) IX 5 21.9 (21.6-22.2) 71.1 (65.6-84.0) X 3 22.0 (21.3-22.5) 62.7 (60.0-67.0) Shebandowan Lake, Port Arthur District Collector — G. Date — August, C. Armstrong 1951 IV 2 11.8 (11.5-12.0) 9.0 (8.0-10.0) VI 4 14.9 (14.3-15.5) 17.9 (16.0-20.5) VIII 2 16.6 (16.5-16.7) 25.5 (25.0-26.0) IX 20 17.1 (16.2-17.7) 27.5 (21.5-34.0) X 13 18.0 (17.8-18.3) 35.0 (31.0-40.0) XI 10 18.2 (18.1-18.5) 35.7 (30.5-42.0) XII 10 18.6 (18.3-19.0) 36.5 (30.5-44.0) XIII 24 18.9 (18.5-19.5) 39.4 (32.5-49.5) XIV 26 19.6 (19.0-21.3) 44.6 (36.5-58.0) XV 16 20.7 (19.5-23.3) 50.2 (37.0-61.0) Red Lake, Sioux Lookout District Collector — G. Clifford Date — October, 1951 Age Group No. of Fish 34 Average Fork Length (ins) 15.5 Length Range (15.0-16.2) Average Weight (ozs.) Weight Range VIII 25.0 (21.0-32.0) IX 38 16.4 (15.8-17.5) 29.0 (23.0-47.0) X 23 17.3 (17.0-18.0) 35.0 (28.0-47.0) XII 2 18.4 (18.1-18.8) 47.0 (44.0-51.0) XIII 1 19.1 - 54.0 w XV 1 21.7 _ 68.0 • 32 Lake Mlnnitaki. Sioux Lookout District Collector ~ Date — June G. Clifford , 1951 Age Group No. of Fish 3 Average Fork Length (ins) 13.5 Length Range (12.5-14.2) Average Weight (ozs.) Length Range V 23.7 (23.0-24.0) VI 11 15.1 (14.5-15.7) 28.0 (24.0-36.0) VII 21 16.0 (15.6-16.8) 33.0 (29.0-41.0) VIII 11 16.7 (16.6-17.0) 39.0 (36.0-44.0) IX 19 17.1 (16.8-17.3) 41.0 (32.0-49.0) X 41 17.6 (17.3-18.0) 44.0 (36.0-51.0) XI 19 18.3 (18.0-18.8) 51.0 (45.0-58.0) XII 9 19.1 (18.8-19.5) 53.0 (46.0-65.0) XIII 2 20.2 (19.8-20.5) 77.0 (70.0-83.0) Perrault Lake, Sioux Lookout District Collector ~ Date — Novei; G. Clifford liber, 1951 V 14 14.0 (12.5-15.3) 22.0 (19.0-26.0) VI 24 15.5 (14.7-16.7) 29.0 (22.0-38.0) VII 6 17.2 (17.0-17.5) 43.0 (40.0-47.0) VIII 9 18.0 (17.6-18.7) 47.0 (43.0-51.0) IX 3 18.4 (18.0-19.0) 48.0 (44.0-55.0) X 3 18.9 (18.8-19.0) 56.0 (54.0-57.0) XI 7 19.3 (19.0-19.8) 60.0 (52.0-69.0) III 9 19.7 (19.5-20.1) 63.0 (50.0-75.0) XIII 6 20.1 (19.7-21.0) 65.0 (50.0-83.0) XIV 1 21.6 am 78.0 m 33 Crov Lake. Kenora District Age Group No. of Fish II 6 III 2 IV 7 V 3 VI 1 VIII 6 IX 5 X 5 XI 2 XIII 1 Collector ~ J. M. Fraser Date — July, 1953 Average Fork Length (ins) Length Ranee (7.0-8.0) Average Weight (ozs.) Weight Range 7.4 2.5 (2.0-3.0) a.3 (8.2-8.5) 4.0 9.9 (9.0-11.0) 6.8 (5.0-9.0) 11.3 (11.2-11.5) 8.3 (8.0-9.0) 13.0 - 14.0 16.4 (16.2-17.0) 33.8 (31.0*39.0) 17.3 (17.0-17.5) 41.8 (34.0-46.0) 18.0 - 41.2 (39.0-43.0) 18.3 (18.2-18.5) 47.0 (45.0-49.0) 19.2 IB 56.0 34 TILL XLGJilGARE - "FOR THE MOOSEHUNTER." (A further abstract from the booklet by S. Liljefors and L. Liljefors, Stockholm, Sweden, 1952. Translated by Ingrid Munck) (Submitted by C. H. D. Clarke) Regulations of the Moose Hunt (Sweden) #1 - All hunting must be carried out in a humane way, so as not to cause unnecessary sufferings to the game. The intention of this rule is to emphasize the responsibility of the hunter in respect to the game, and to make him take all precautions to protect the game from sufferings. This rule exceeds the limitations of the law concerning the prevention of cruelty to animals, in so far as it does not excuse those who cause suffering to the game without any intention to do so. It is true that the risk of wounding the game can never be completely eliminated. But it is regarded as a violence of the Hunting Regulations if the wounds result from careless shooting, as for instance by taking chances and shooting from a long distance, or from the use of dangerous guns and ammunition, or if the ability of the hunter is impaired due to alcohol. Failure in attempting to track down the wounded animal immediately, adds to its unnecessary sufferings. It is unlawful to hunt moose at night. The second paragraph of the Hunting Regulations sets the time for legal hunting from one hour before sunrise to one hour after sunset. This rule does not apply to the tracking down of a moose which has been wounded during the period mentioned above. Hunting by artificial light is illegal, and it is not permitted to hunt from motordriven vehicle, like a car, tractor, motorcycle and the like; the use of any such vehicle with the purpose of attracting the attention of the game is likewise illegal. Thus it is not permitted to drive a tractor and let the hunter off at a favourable spot near the game. Nor is it allowed to shoot from any engine driven vessel, (including boats provided with outboard motors), or from a vessel which is being tugged, #S of The Hunting Act. This rule does not include the hunting of seal, however. It is not permitted to chase the game away from an area belonging to some other party. This includes any attempts to keep the game within one f s own property by spreading carbide, lysol and other strong smelling chemicals along the boundaries of it. The odour may invade the adjoining grounds, resulting in the game leaving these areas. It is also prohibited to lure the game away from the adjoining areas by 35 baiting or by calling the moose, #19 of The Hunting Act. Hunting Seasons In order that the moose population should not be reduced below a certain level, restrictions in regard to the hunting of this game must be obeyed. This end is reached by various ways, for instance by making the ordinary season on moose very short. Restricting the moose hunt to a few hectic days, however, entails many diffi- culties. Therefore, in the case of vast hunting areas, the landlord of such a range may have the ordinary season changed to a longer extraordinary one. This is the so- called license-hunting season, during which a legal number of moose is killed in accordance with the highest number of moose to be killed in that year in that particu- lar area, so that other persons will not kill any significant number of animals here. An area of 1000 hectares of well tilled farmland has been set as the minimum for obtaining such a license in the southern parts of the country, which equals an area of 2000 hectares in the northern parts. In Uppsala county where the moose population is very large, the requirements are much lower in respect to the area. Application for licensed hunting is filed by the private landowners in counties where their properties are located. In such cases where the area is cut in two by a boundary line between two counties, the applications are filed with the county in which the larger part of the property is located. Applications are filed with the Government Board of Crown Lands and Forests in the case of land belonging to the Crown. Such applications must be in the hands of the authorities not later than by the l'irst of August in those parts of the country where the ordinary season starts in September, and by the first of September in other localities where the season opens in October. A license for hunting moose is valid for a certain area only, which must therefore be stated in detail in the application. The names of the concessions and the registration number of the particular areas must be indicated too. As a rule a map (issued by the Military Command) is required for this purpose, and the boundaries of the area should be indicated on it. The size of the area is given in hectares, (1 hectare equals 2.47 acres). It must be stated in the application for how long a time the license is requested. The maximum time is one month, and the extraordinary season is to begin at the same time as the ordinary one, in that particular area. The number of moose to be killed must be stated too. Finally a reliable estimate of the growth of the moose population should be cited in the application. The purpose of licensed hunting is to reduce the moose population where it is too numerous, so that a decrease in the damage caused by this game results. A statement from The Committee Dealing with Damage Caused by Moose, or from some other 36 authorities concerned with the extent of the damage must be enclosed with the applications, and it must be stated whether the particular area is covered by the law. If it is, the season may be prolonged for more than one month, and permission to hunt yearlings may be granted, if a wish to that effect is expressed in the application. The approximate number of yearlings must be stated. The importance of reading the license carefully must be emphasized, as it is likely to contain certain conditions as to the ratio of bulls, cows and yearlings to be killed, or it may list areas to be closed to the hunt. Such a license obliges the holder to kill only as many moose as it permits. Cases have occurred where the total number of moose have been killed during the first day of the season, which means that this particular season is over. It should be noticed that the license permits the holder to kill a certain number of moose, i.e. to reduce the population with such a number; moose that are found to have died from natural causes are not to be included in this number. Only when such moose are found during the ordinary season are they to be regarded as the legal property of the license holder; at all other times they are the property of the Crown. A moose which is wounded within the licensed area, and which dies within 100 meters from its boundaries belongs to the holder of the hunting license. The moose belongs to the Crown if it dies outside this 100 meters area; however, if it is killed during the ordinary open season it is the property of the landowner of the surrounding area, or the property of the license holder of the particular area. Also in this case the moose is to be included in the total number killed. Besides the law concern- ing the extraordinary season on moose there are some other rules, the purpose of which is to reduce the damage caused by this game. Areas in which the hardwood industry is of major importance can be registered as such with the county authorities upon recommendation of The Moose Damage Committee; this means in practice that the holder of the hunting license for that particular area may hunt moose all year round. However, he is only permitted to keep such animals which are killed during the ordinary season. All others belong to the Crown. In such areas where damage caused by moose necessitates hunting of this game at other times of the year than during the extraordinary season, the county authori- ties or the Government Board of Crown Lands and Forests may legalize such hunting. The exact time for the hunt to take place and the maximum number of moose (including yearlings) to be killed is stated in such a permission. This type of permission is granted in order to kill only such animals which cause damage to the crops. The hunt must take place in or close to the fields in question, and the killed animals belong 37 to the holder of the hunting license. A similar permission may be obtained to kill such moose that are known to cause damage to the woods. This permission can be used out of season. Moose killed in accordance with such a permission belong to the Crown, however. One rule is common to all three types of special permissions mentioned here, namely, that if a cow moose killed during the time from April 15th to August 31st is accompanied by a yearling, the latter is to be killed too. Wounded and Dead Moose The 100 meters boundary. The hunter must stay within his own area, and the game he aims at must be within the same area. However, the animal does not always die the moment it is hit by a bullet, and the moose is likely to run a considerable distance before collapsing, even if the bullet is correctly placed. Especially when hunting close to the border of one's area the moose may happen to die within an area belonging to somebody else. If the moose collapses within 100 meters from the area belonging to the hunter, the latter has a right to keep the animal, (#16, The Act of Hunting Rights). In the case of a killed moose, deer or elk two witnesses must be present when the game is retrieved, and the landowner or the holder of the hunting license of that particular area must be informed about the event within 1+8 hours. This rule about the ownership to game obtained from a strange area is often misinterpreted, so that it is necessary to explain it in detail. The moose must receive the fatal wound while still in the area belonging to the hunter. Thus a hunter loses his right to the moose if he continues to shoot at the animal after it crosses the border of his area. This is something one must not do from a humanitarian point of view, although it is not stated clearly in the Act. The moose is considered as collapsed when it falls to the ground and is unable to move; yet it need not actually be dead. If the shot which kills the animal is fired while the moose is in a strange area, the case is nevertheless not regarded as illegal hunting, and the hunter does not lose his right to the game. The regula- tion regarding the 100 meter area is to be taken literally; a 100 meter wide strip (which equals 110 yards) must be imagined as running around the border of the hunting area. If the moose collapses within this area it belongs to the hunter which killed it irrespective of the course the moose took to get there. In case somebody else aimed a shot at the moose, during the time from which the first shot was fired till the animal collapsed, it is for the first hunter to prove that his bullet killed the moose. To do this, however, is as a rule a hopeless matter. 38 An example: Anderson believes to have hit the moose in the lungs at a point A. The moose crosses the boundary and passes through the 100 meter strip belonging to his area, thus being lost to him. Jonsson shoots at it, but the animal moves on and passes, without further shots, Karlsson's area; it finally collapses without being shot at in Larsson 1 s area, but lies within 100 meters from Andersson's area. To whom, now, does the animal belong? The moose collapsed at a distance more than 100 meters from Jonsson 1 s hunting area, which means that Jonsson has no right to it. It passed through Karlsson's area without being shot at, and finally it collapsed outside Anderson's hunting area. Karlsson has no claim on the moose. Larsson did not shoot, but the animal lies in his field and so he claims it, basing his claim on the act concerning game found in the field, (#18, section 2 of The Hunting Act). Andersson believes that the shot which was fired within his area killed the moose, and as the moose lies within his 100 meters strip he claims the animal as his property, according to #16 of The Hunting Act. If the hunt had taken place during the extraordinary season, and not as is the case during the ordinary season in that locality, not Larsson but the Crown would have claimed the animal, (#18, The Hunting Act). The case may be even more complicated at other times. The rule about the 100 meters border area constantly causes bad feelings among neighbours, and as it definitely promotes less careful sportsmanship in the boundary areas it is a matter of interest to the societies concerned with the protection of wildlife to have this rule eliminated from the law. There is no reason for maintaining this rule, the more so as it is the duty of the hunter to report the crossing of a wounded animal into the adjoining area. Wounded Moose It is the duty of anybody wounding an animal, to track it down and have it killed, (#1, The Hunting Act). When the moose is hit by a bullet it must be considered as seriously wounded until the opposite is proved to be the case. A careful search for the wounded animal is an obligation and the failure to carry it out is a criminal offense. If a wounded moose enters a strange area the holder of the hunting license in that particular area or his representative must be informed immediately, (#16, section 2 of The Hunting Act). If one finds a badly wounded moose and one considers it necessary to kill it the case must be reported immediately to the police or to the local representative of The Government Board of Crown Lands and Forests. A moose killed under such circum- stances is the property of the Crown. 39 Dead Game This term refers to remnants of dead game which are still of some value. Game already dealt with does not come under this regulation, which states that dead game is the property of the Crown, except during the open season when it is the property of the holder of the hunting license. Excepted from this rule is game found in the 100 meters border area, (#16, The Hunting Act). The finding of dead game during the closed season should be reported to the police or to the representative of The Board as soon as possible.